1.First-come, first-served (FCFS) scheduling
2.Shortest-job first (SJF) scheduling
3.Priority scheduling
4.Round-robin scheduling
5.Multilevel queue scheduling
6.Multilevel feedback queue scheduling

  • First-come, First-served (FCFS) scheduling
-is the simplest scheduling algorithm, but it can cause short processes to wait for very long processes.

  • Shortest-job-first (SJF) scheduling
-is provably optimal, providing the shortest average waiting time. Implementing SJF scheduling is difficult because predicting the length of the next CPU burst is difficult. The SJF algorithm is a special case of the general

  • Priority-scheduling algorithm,
- which simply allocates the CPU to the highest-priority process. Both priority and SJF scheduling may suffer from starvation. Aging is a technique to prevent starvation.

  • Round-robin (RR) scheduling
- is more appropriate for a time-shared (interactive) system. RR scheduling allocates the CPU to the first process in the ready queue for q time units, where q is the time quantum. After q time units, if the process has not relinquished the CPU, it is preempted and the process is put at the tail of the ready queue. The major problem is the selection of the time quantum. If the quantum is too large, RR scheduling degenerates to FCFS scheduling; if the quantum is too small, scheduling overhead in the form of context-switch time becomes excessive.

The FCFS algorithm is nonpreemptive, the RR algorithm is preemptive. The SJF and priority algorithms may be either preemptive or nonpreemptive.

  • Multilevel queue algorithms
-allow different algorithms to be used for various classes of processes. The most common is a foreground interactive queue which uses RR scheduling, and a background batch queue, which uses FCFS scheduling.
  • Multilevel feedback queues
-allow processes to move from one queue to another.

Because such a wide variety of scheduling algorithms are available, we need methods to select among them. Analytic methods use mathematical analysis to determine the performance of an algorithm. Simulation methods determine performance by imitating the scheduling algorithm on a “representative” sample of processes, and computing the resulting performance.

Operating Systems supporting threads at the kernel level must schedule threads - not processes - for execution. This is the case with Solaris 2 and Windows 2000 where both systems schedule threads using preemptive priority based on scheduling algorithm including support for real-time threads. The Linux process scheduler also uses a priority-based algorithm with real-time supports as well. The scheduling algorithms for these three operating systems typically favor interactive over batch and CPU-bound processes.systems typically favor interactive over batch and CPU-bound processes.